Where to Go in Russia
We like the 300-year-old Siberian city of Irkutsk (pop.
630,000). Its citizens are a proud bunch, much like Alaskans or
Texans, and are a pleasure to be around. We found Irkutsk
dressed in a fantasy-like attire: The trees were covered by a
wonderful lace of hoarfrost, and the snow sparkled brightly
under the strong sun and blue sky. Of course, the next day was
gray, cloudy, bitterly cold and somewhat depressing, but that's
the risk you take when you visit Siberia. While the city doesn't
have many attractions, we did like the Museum of Wooden
Architecture (a collection of buildings from the 17th, 18th and
19th centuries) and the quirky Irkutsk Regional Museum (good
exhibits on local tribes and the city's history). Irkutsk is
also a departure point for excursions to Lake Baikal, one
of the largest freshwater lakes in Eurasia, though the majority
of tours simply take you to the shore for a look. Most travelers
either fly in or visit the city as part of a trip on the
Trans-Siberian Railway. Plan two nights in the area. 2,620
mi/4,215 km east of Moscow.
One of the top attractions in Siberia is an excursion to the
spectacular volcanoes and parks of this pristine peninsula.
There are grizzly bears, salmon-filled rivers and geyser
activity to rival Yellowstone National Park in the U.S. It's
remoteness makes it difficult and expensive to reach, but if
you're looking for unspoiled wilderness, Kamchatka is well worth
the trouble. 4,000 mi/6,400 km northeast of Moscow.
East of Moscow on the Volga River, intriguing Kazan (pop.
1,094,000) is an ancient and historical city. Primary sights
include its university (where Tolstoy and Lenin went to school),
the Kazan Kremlin, the 16th-century Spasskaya Tower and charming
gardens and parks. Most visitors add a day to cruise down the
Volga, Europe's longest river. We wouldn't make a special trip
to the city, but if you're in the area, a day spent in Kazan can
be quite pleasant. 450 mi/725 km east of Moscow.
A small island in Lake Onega, Kizhi has a collection of
fascinating wooden churches and other nicely preserved wood
structures. There aren't many places left in Russia where these
buildings survive, and as a result, Kizhi has been designated a
UNESCO World Heritage Site. Pine logs and aspen shingles were
used to create the buildings, many of which have onion domes.
There's nothing to do on the island except admire the structures
at this open-air museum, but it's worth it for those with an
interest in architecture. (The Church of the Transfiguration,
with 22 cupolas and an unusual iconostasis, is especially
notable, although it's closed for badly needed repairs.) Most
visitors arrive by hour-long steamer excursion from the
industrial city of Petrozavodsk. (Use Petrozavodsk only
as a transit point - there's not a lot to do there.) Keep in
mind that you can't visit Kizhi November-April. 200 mi/320 km
northeast of St. Petersburg.
Moscow has changed more in the past decade than over the
previous half-century. Once-empty shops have become expensive
restaurants, designer boutiques and 24-hour convenience stores.
Nightlife, which used to be restricted to cheesy singers at bad
restaurants, has exploded into one of the most vibrant and
decadent party scenes in Europe. Yet the most surprising thing
about today's Moscow is its normalcy - after 10 years of massive
upheaval, it has transformed itself into something resembling a
typical European capital city. True, the city still has more
than its fair share of venal expatriates, foxy young
adventuresses and thuggish mafiosi in Versace suits. But you're
just as likely to see young Russian professionals driving
Volkswagens, reading the Russian-language Cosmopolitan
and ordering goat-cheese-and-basil pizza on their mobile phones.
Crime - once the most worrisome aspect of the post-Soviet era -
has been curtailed, and the notorious mafia has become more
subtle in its dress and business methods. Many former crime
lords have gone into legitimate businesses or even joined the
That said, a visit to Moscow isn't simple. A lot of bureaucratic
red tape remains from the days of the U.S.S.R., and those who
don't speak Russian will be challenged by communication
difficulties - even deciphering the Cyrillic signs can be a
chore. We think these hassles are worth tolerating, however.
There's something invigorating about observing the city's
breakneck sprint toward the future, especially while visiting
its famous landmarks of the past.
The largest city north of the Arctic Circle, Murmansk (pop.
450,000) is a port town and base for the Northern Fleet
(submarines). It's said that Murman translated as the
"end of the Earth" when the town was named - with nine months of
winter and 52 days of continual darkness, we can believe it. If
you do find yourself there, go to the Panorama Restaurant for a
full (and warm) view of the city, which stretches for 12 mi/20
km along the shoreline. Note the port's overhanging cliffs,
which sheltered Allied supply ships from German air attacks
during World War II. Sights in town include the Military Museum
of the Northern Fleet (displays about the fleet's role from
World War II to the present), Gun Monument (in memory of town
defenders), St. Nicholas' Church and the aptly named Local
Museum (World War II displays). Nearby is the ancient settlement
of Kola, with remnants of 13th-century earthen ramparts
and a 400-year-old cross. The Festival of the North (last week
of March) is a carnival that features all sorts of cold-weather
fun, including swimming in water with chunks of ice. Cruises to
the North Pole also originate in Murmansk. 630 mi/1,015 km
north of St. Petersburg.
This city (pop. 240,000) is more than 1,000 years old. At one
time it competed with Moscow for domination of Old Russia.
Today, it's primarily modern and industrial but still retains a
well-preserved Kremlin and old city center. See St. Sofia
Cathedral (begun in 1045, with six domes) and the city's other
ancient churches, which are concentrated in the Yaroslav Estate
across the Volkhov River from the Kremlin. Two-hour river
cruises are offered from a dock just south of the Kremlin. Also
in town is the apartment where physician/dissident Andrei
Sakharov lived in exile. Just outside of Novgorod is the
Vitoslavlitsy Museum of Wooden Architecture, which has about two
dozen wooden structures, all built without nails. Novgorod can
be reached by rail or air from St. Petersburg or Moscow (the
town is closer to St. Petersburg). 100 mi/160 km southeast of
An ancient city, Oryol is known as the birthplace of
novelist/playwright Turgenev (author of A Month in the
Country). While some sites in Oryol are associated with the
author, ardent followers will want to make the pilgrimage to
nearby Spasskoye-Lutovinovo, Turgenev's well-preserved country
estate. Oryol merits an overnight trip from Moscow. 210
mi/340 km southwest of Moscow.
Set on a plateau on the northern slopes of the Caucasus
Mountains, Pyatigorsk (pop. 121,000) is the center of the
best-known spa area in Russia. It has some of the nation's
finest and most spectacular scenery, which you can best see by
taking the cable car to the top of nearby Mt. Mashuk. Local
attractions focus almost exclusively on water or rest cures,
including rain "massages," hydrotherapy and mineral baths. The
Lermontov Baths is the oldest bathhouse in Russia. Other resort
towns offering similar cures are Zheleznovodsk,
Yessentuki (with mud baths) and Kislovodsk (where all
traffic is banned to ensure clean air). Other area attractions
include Sochi, a popular beach resort on the Black Sea,
and the ski slopes on Mt. Elbrus or in the Dombai Valley. 330
mi/530 km southeast of Volgograd.
Any city that has changed its name three times in less than 100
years might appear to have an identity crisis. And so it does,
but St. Petersburg's upheavals mirror that of its mother
country. It frequently took center stage in the drama that was
Russia in the 20th century, not to mention the tumultuous
centuries that came before. The names of its places and people
are almost a roll call of Russian history: the Winter Palace,
the czars, Dostoyevsky, the Peter and Paul Fortress,
Tchaikovsky, Lenin. The city remains essential for visitors who
want to understand what came before and what's happening in the
country now. Travelers will find much of interest on the streets
and canals of Russia's most beloved and stylish city.
Suzdal is one of the oldest towns in Russia, dating from 1024.
It's full of onion-domed churches, monasteries and other
examples of traditional Russian structures. One monastery in
town has rooms available for lodging. The city's Museum of
Wooden Architecture and Peasant Life is similar to those in
Novgorod and Kizhi, with a varied and interesting collection of
buildings. Suzdal is enjoyable any time of year, but it's
particularly nice in winter, when the landscape is covered in
snow and the Russian Winter Folk Festival takes place (25
December-5 January). 135 mi/220 km northeast of Moscow.
Founded as an industrial center, Tula (pop. 540,000) has a
number of sites worth a day trip from Moscow. Visit the
350-year-old Kremlin, the History of Arms Museum and the
Imperial Small Arms Factory (founded by Peter the Great in
1712). Some of Russia's finest samovars (teapots) were created
in Tula, some of which can be seen in the Samovar Museum near
the Kremlin. The city's most famous draw, however, is nearby
Yasnaya Polyana, the country estate of author Leo Tolstoy. While
there, visit his home, museum and (unmarked) gravesite. 110
mi/180 km south of Moscow.
The birthplace of Lenin, Ulyanovsk (pop. 625,000) used to be a
much more popular destination than it is now. However, the city
is a fascinating glimpse into the cult of Lenin: The entire city
center is a memorial to the man. There's a large museum complex
devoted to Lenin's life and the Russian revolution. The seven
houses his family lived in have been preserved as museums, as
has the neighborhood where they're located. A visit is
worthwhile to see how much the communists truly glorified Lenin.
445 mi/715 km east of Moscow.
This city (pop. 343,000) once rivaled Moscow for the
predominance of central Russia. That was before the Mongols
invaded in 1238 and destroyed most of the city and killed most
of its inhabitants. What remains of special interest to visitors
today are three 12th-century structures that claim to be the
first examples of "white-stone" Russian architecture: St.
Demetrius Cathedral, the Cathedral of the Assumption and
Vladimir's Golden Gate (part of the city's defenses), which now
has a museum with a diorama depicting the city at the time of
the Mongol invasion. 100 mi/170 km northeast of Moscow.
The last stop on the Trans-Siberian Express, Vladivostok (pop.
648,000), is set amid hills overlooking the Sea of Japan. The
town has a few interesting museums, including the Arsenev
Regional Museum (natural-history displays and Japanese
ceramics), the Museum of the Pacific Fleet and the Krasny
Vympel (Red Pennant), the first ship of the Soviet Pacific
Navy. Vladivostok is also a good center for organizing camping
and trekking trips to Siberia and the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Because it is a strategic port city (home to the Russian Far
Eastern Fleet), it was closed to foreigners for many years.
4,000 mi/6,400 km east of Moscow.
This city (pop.1,000,000) on the western bank of the Volga River
was once known as Stalingrad, but it was renamed in the late
1950s when Stalin's policies were reassessed - less favorably -
in official history books. It has been given the title "Hero
City" because of its courageous and tenacious resistance to the
Nazis in "The Great Patriotic War" (as the Russians call World
War II). The city itself has been totally rebuilt since the war.
We suggest one day in Volgograd to visit the impressive Museum
of the Defense of Stalingrad, to see the memorial atop Mamayev
Hill (allow at least an hour, preferably in the early morning),
and to take one of the 90-minute boat rides on the Volga.
560 mi/900 km southeast of Moscow.